Microbiota Quality and Mitochondrial Activity Link with Occurrence of Muscle Cramps in Hemodialysis Patients using Citrate Dialysate: A Pilot Study

Marvin Edeas - Microbiota Quality and Mitochondrial Activity

Piltote study on Microbiota Quality and Mitochondrial Activity by Pierre-Yves Durand, Carole Nicco, Dedier Serteyn, David Attaf, Marvin Edeas

 

BACKGROUND/AIMS:

Hemodialysis-associated muscle cramp (HAMC) is a common complication under citrate dialysate (CD) occurring in 30% of cases. Our objectives were to assess the gut microbiota quality, mitochondrial activity, and to investigate their possible relationship with HAMC.

METHODS:

Ten end-stage renal disease patients (78.9 ± 2.1 years) treated by hemodialysis (HD) with CD were enrolled and then classified according to the frequency of HAMCs: “frequent HAMCs group” (n = 5) and “absence of HAMCs group” (n = 5). Gut microbiota quality, mitochondrial activity, and some markers of oxidative stress (OS) were investigated.

RESULTS:

In patients with cramps, gut microbiota diversity seemed lower and some genera including Helicobacter, Lachnospira, Roseburia, and Haemophilus seemed over-expressed, a significant increase of citratemia and significant lowering mitochondrial function were observed. No difference was observed on the OS markers.

CONCLUSION:

This first clinical study revealed a possible dysbiosis of microbiota and a mitochondrial dysfunction into HD patients with cramps under CD compared to patients without cramp.

© 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Pubmed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30048977

Authors:  Pierre-Yves Durand, Carole Nicco, Dedier Serteyn, David Attaf, Marvin Edeas

Prof. Marvin Edeas highlights: Microbiota and Phage Therapy – “Future Challenges in Medicine”

Prof. Marvin Edeas highlights: Microbiota and Phage Therapy - "Future Challenges in Medicine"

Dr. Armelle Paule, Prof.Dominico Frezza and Prof. Marvin Edeas published an article on Phage Therapy and Microbiota.

 

An imbalance of bacterial quantity and quality of gut microbiota has been linked to several pathologies. New strategies of microbiota manipulation have been developed such as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT); the use of pre/probiotics; an appropriate diet; and phage therapy. The presence of bacteriophages has been largely underestimated and their presence is a relevant component for the microbiome equilibrium. As a promising treatment, phage therapy has been extensively used in Eastern Europe to reduce pathogenic bacteria and has arisen as a new method to modulate microbiota diversity. Phages have been selected and “trained” to infect a wide spectrum of bacteria or tailored to infect specific antibiotic resistant bacteria present in patients. The new development of genetically modified phages may be an efficient tool to treat the gut microbiota dysbiosis associated with different pathologies and increased production of bacterial metabolites and subsequently decrease systemic low-grade chronic inflammation associated with chronic diseases. Microbiota quality and mitochondria dynamics can be remodulated and manipulated by phages to restore the equilibrium and homeostasis of the system. Our aim is to highlight the great interest for phages not only to eliminate and control pathogenic bacterial infection but also in the near future to modulate the microbiota by adding new functions to selected bacteria species and rebalance the dynamic among phages and bacteria. The challenge for the medicine of tomorrow is to re-think and redesign strategies differently and far from our traditional thinking.

Authors: Armelle Paule, Dominico Frezza, Marvin Edeas

Pubmed link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30301167

 

Non-antibiotic antimicrobial triclosan induces multiple antibiotic resistance through genetic mutation

Image from: Sciencedirect.com

Mutations led to resistance by up-regulating beta-lactamase and multi-drug efflux pump.

Antibiotic resistance poses a major threat to public health. Overuse and misuse of antibiotics are generally recognized as the key factors contributing to antibiotic resistance. However, whether non-antibiotic, anti-microbial (NAAM) chemicals can directly induce antibiotic resistance is unclear. We aim to investigate whether the exposure to a NAAM chemical triclosan (TCS) has an impact on inducing antibiotic resistance on Escherichia coli. Here, we report that at a concentration of 0.2 mg/L TCS induces multi-drug resistance in wild-type Escherichia coli after 30-day TCS exposure.

The oxidative stress induced by TCS caused genetic mutations in genes such as fabI, frdD, marR, acrR and soxR, and subsequent up-regulation of the transcription of genes encoding beta-lactamases and multi-drug efflux pumps, together with down-regulation of genes related to membrane permeability. The findings advance our understanding of the potential role of NAAM chemicals in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in microbes, and highlight the need for controlling biocide applications.

News source: www.sciencedirect.com
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.06.004

Targeting Phage & Antibiotic Resistance World Congress 2018 concluding remarks

The 5th World Congress on Targeting Infectious Diseases: Targeting Phage &  Antibiotic Resistance 2018 was organized in Florence, Italy in May 17-18, 2018.
 
During two days, more than 100 oral & poster communications were highlighted different axes and topics related to the recent advances and challenges in phage therapy, and to all innovations related to the antibiotic resistance in general.
 
The 5th edition was an excellent platform which gathered more than 200 participants from 33 countries, to share data, ideas, critical comments and opinions alike.
 
After all the high-quality presentations given by internationally renowned phage therapy and antibiotic resistance investigators as well as by young scientists and at the end of the congress, the scientific committee discerned several awards to distinguished speakers:
 
Scientific Achievement Award:
Prof. Richard Novick from New York University, USA was awarded for all his scientific achievements.
 
Prof. Novick gave a strategic presentation about “Reincarnation of a staphylococcal pathogenicity island as an antibacterial drone
For more information, please click here.
 
 
 
Scientific Contribution Award:
Dr Yoon Sung Nam, from Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology presented the recent advances and perspectives on Efficient in vivo phage therapy via immunological cloaking. The scientific contribution award was awarded by the scientific committee.
For more information about this award, please click here.
 
 
 
Poster Presentation Award:
The third award was discerned to two young researchers:
 

Thomas Thompson from Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK presented a poster about “Halophiles a novel source of antimicrobial natural products
For more information about this award, please click here.
 
Nika Janež from the Centre of Excellence for Biosensors, Instrumentation and Process Control, Ajdovščina, Slovenia presented the “Characteristics of healthy and acne human skin colonization by bacteriophages of propionibacterium acnes and staphylococcus epidermidis and their hosts”.
For more information about this award, please click here.
 
The Abstracts book of Phage Therapy & Antibiotic Resistance 2018 is including all abstracts which were presented with oral and poster communication during the congress.
 
If you didn’t attend the conference, you can order the abstracts book by clicking here.
 
To access the final agenda of Phage Therapy & Antibiotic Resistance 2018, please click here.
 
To access the pictures of Phage Therapy & Antibiotic Resistance 2018, please click here.
 
The scientific committee took on consideration the conclusion of this congress to underline and target the new strategies for the next edition which will be held in 2019. All the practical information will be added soon on the website.
 
Pr Domenico Frezza,  University of Roma Tor Vergata
Local Organizer of Targeting Phage & Antibiotic Resistance

The poster contribution awards were delivered to two young researchers

During Phage Therapy & Antibiotic Resistance Congress 2018, Dr Thomas Thompson from Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom presented a poster about “Halophiles a novel source of antimicrobial natural products”.
 
The aim of this study was “to establish the potential of extremely halophilic microorganisms from Kilroot Salt Mine, Northern Ireland, as a novel source of natural product chemistry with the objective to eventually isolate and structurally elucidate original anti-infective compounds from this unique microbiome. […]”
Dr Thompson demonstrated that “Bio-assay guided fractionation of crude extracts is on-going. Halophiles remain a promising reservoir possessing broad antimicrobial activity, and there is no doubt that exploitation of extreme environments have an important role to play in AMR.”.
 

From her side, Dr Nika Janež from the Centre of Excellence for Biosensors, Instrumentation and Process Control, Ajdovščina, Slovenia presented the “Characteristics of healthy and acne human skin colonization by bacteriophages of propionibacterium acnes and staphylococcus epidermidis and their hosts”.
 
According to Dr Janež:Propionibacterium spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were identified as the predominant and stable inhabitants of healthy human skin. They are considered to be commensal microorganisms though they are associated with development of acne and clinically relevant infections. We aim to determine Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis co-colonization characteristics of human skin potentially playing a role in health or disease of the human skin. […] Our small scale study results suggest that P. acnes, S. epidermidis and their bacteriophages are able to co-inhabit healthy human skin, but on acne skin this balance seems to be altered. The bacteriophages were examined more in detail to evaluate their possible ecological and therapeutic potential.”
 
 
The scientific committee

Efficient in vivo phage therapy via immunological cloaking awarded for the best short oral presentation

Dr Yoon Sung Nam from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology at Daejeon, Republic of Korea was awarded for his short oral presentation about “Efficient in vivo phage therapy via immunological cloaking” during Phage Therapy & Antibiotic Resistance Congress 2018.
 
The aim of Dr Nam’s study was to “immunologically cloaked T7 phage to reduce phagocytosis through genetic expression of CD47-derived self-peptide.  […]”.
In their study, Dr Nam and his team “demonstrated that the in vivo anti-bacterial activity of lytic T7 phage can be dramatically increased by prolonged blood circulation through immunological cloaking with the self-peptide.”
 
The scientific committee

Prof. Richard Novick was awarded for his scientific contribution

During the 5th World Congress on Targeting Infectious Diseases: Targeting Phage &  Antibiotic Resistance 2018 organized in Florence, Italy in May 17-18, 2018, the Scientific Committee awarded Prof. Richard Novick from the School of Medicine of New York University, USA for all his scientific achievements in the field of phage therapy.

Prof. Richard Novick gave a strategic presentation about “Reincarnation of a staphylococcal pathogenicity island as an antibacterial drone”.

 

According to Prof. Novick:

“Staphylococcus aureus, long considered a dangerous, antibiotic resistant pathogen, has recently become more virulent, more contagious and more resistant, especially to B-lactams (MRSA) and glycopeptides (VRSA). Today, it causes a wide variety of life-threatening infections, many of which cannot be treated effectively with conventional antibiotics. Consequently, there is an urgent need for new ways to treat these infections, which annually cause some 18,000 deaths in the US.

We have developed a novel non-antibiotic method for treating staphylococcal infections. This method is based on the naturally-occurring, highly mobile staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs). The SaPIs are ~15 kb genetic elements that are stably inserted in the staph chromosome but can be induced by “helper” phages to excise and replicate.

[…] Our plans for the future include two major initiatives: Adding new antibacterial modules to the basic system, and expanding the system to other bacterial pathogens.”

Testimonial from Prof. Novick:

“Although I have devoted much of my career to the study of mobile genetic elements in bacteria and have been deeply concerned for many years about the problems of antibiotic resistance, this was my first visit to the world of phage therapy.  And it was a wonderful visit – not only did I learn a tremendous amount in a field that I knew only peripherally, but also, I found the scientific talks highly informative and very well presented. […] I anticipate the development of collaborations with several of the scientists that I met at the Congress.”

On behalf of the scientific committee
www.tid-site.com

Last practical Information for Phage Therapy Congress Attendees

In few days (May 17-18), you will attend Targeting Phage & Antibiotic Resistance Congress 2018 which will be held at Santa Apollonia Auditorium, in Florence, Italy.

Final agenda
Please click here to access the final agenda.

We remind you that the registration will start at 8:00 on May 17.

Phage Therapy Speed Collaboration
We remind you that you can take part to the Phage Therapy Speed Collaboration which will be organized on May 17 between 17:15 to 18:00.

This session is dedicated to all attendees, academics, start-ups and industrials who are looking for collaboration: each attendee can present his project during one or two minutes to other attendees. If you would like to take part to the Phage Therapy Speed Collaboration, please contact us.

Phage Therapy dinner
The dinner, gathering some attendees and speakers, is organized on May 17 at Hotel Brunelleschi.

Hotel Brunelleschi
Piazza Santa Elisabetta, 3 – 50122 Florence

You can register online here, or on site on May 17.

Poster session
The poster session will be organized during the coffee breaks and lunch breaks of both days.

Certificate of attendance
The certificate of attendance will be sent to all attendees by email after the congress.

Contact
In case of emergency, please contact Prof. Frezza:
frezza@uniroma2.it
tel: 0039 06 7259 4243 or 0039 335 195 6017.

You can also contact us to contact@tid-site.com.

Join Targeting Phage Therapy Dinner

A dinner, gathering some attendees and speakers, is organized on May 17 at Hotel Brunelleschi.

Address of  Restaurant:
Stemma Restaurant
(first floor)
Hotel Brunelleschi

Piazza Santa Elisabetta, 3 – 50122

You can participate to this dinner by booking here.

 


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